Fibroids are abnormal growths that develop in or on a woman’s uterus. Sometimes these tumors become quite large and cause severe abdominal pain and heavy periods. In other cases, they cause no signs or symptoms at all. The growths are typically benign, or noncancerous. The cause of fibroids is unknown.
Fibroids are also known by the following names:
- uterine myomas
About 80% of women have them by the age of 50. However, some symptoms can be silent and some women do not even know they have fibroids.
The type of fibroid a woman develops depends on its location in or on the uterus
Intramural fibroids are the most common type of fibroid. These types appear within the muscular wall of the uterus. Intramural fibroids may grow larger and can stretch your womb.
Subserosal fibroids form on the outside of your uterus, which is called the serosa. They may grow large enough to make your womb appear bigger on one side.
Subserosal tumors can develop a stem, a slender base that supports the tumor. When they do, they’re known as pedunculated fibroids.
These types of tumors develop in the middle muscle layer, or myometrium, of your uterus. Submucosal tumors aren’t as common as the other types.
It’s unclear why fibroids develop, but several factors may influence their formation.
Estrogen and Progesterone are the hormones produced by the ovaries. They cause the uterine lining to regenerate during each menstrual cycle and may stimulate the growth of fibroids.
Fibroids may run in the family. If your mother, sister, or grandmother has a history of this condition, you may develop it as well.
Being pregnant increases the production of estrogen and progesterone in your body. Fibroids may develop and grow rapidly while you are pregnant.
Women are at greater risk for developing fibroids if they have one or more of the following risk factors:
- a family history of fibroids
- age of 30 or older
- being overwight
Your symptoms will depend on the number of tumors you have as well as their location and size. For instance, submucosal fibroids may cause heavy menstrual bleeding and problems conceiving.
Symptoms of fibroids may include:
- heavy bleeding including blood clots
- pain in the pelvis or lower back
- increased menstrual cramping
- menstruation that lasts longer than usual
- pressure in lower abdomen
For a proper diagnosis, you’ll need to see a gynecologist to get a pelvic exam This exam is used to check the condition, size, and shape of your uterus. You may also need other tests, which include: Ultrasound and Pelvic MRI
Your doctor will develop a treatment plan based on your age, the size of your fibroids, and your overall health. You may receive a combination of treatments.
Medications are given to regulate your hormone levels may be prescribed to shrink fibroids.
Other options that can help control bleeding and pain, but won’t shrink or eliminate fibroids, include:
- an IUD that releases the hormone progestin
- Birth control pills
Surgery to remove very large or multiple growths may be performed. This is known as a myomectomy. An abdominal myomectomy involves making a large incision in the abdomen to access the uterus and remove the fibroids. The surgery can also be performed laparocopically using a few small incisions into which surgical tools and a camera are inserted. Fibroids might grow back after surgery.
If your condition worsens, or if no other treatments work, your physician may perform a hysterectomy. However, this means that you won’t be able to bear children in the future.